Manuscripts published

[Tirmzi2020jun] Tirmzi, A. M.; Dwyer, R. P.; Jiang, F. & Marohn, J. A.“Light-Dependent Impedance Spectra and Transient Photoconductivity in a Ruddlesden-Popper 2D Lead-Halide Perovskite Revealed by Electrical Scanned Probe Microscopy and Accompanying Theory”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2020, 124, 13639 - 13648 [10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c04467]. Published as part of The Journal of Physical Chemistry virtual special issue “Time-Resolved Microscopy” [url].

[Dwyer2019jun] Dwyer, R. P.; Harrell, L. E. & Marohn “Lagrangian and impedance spectroscopy treatments of electric force microscopy”, Phys. Rev. Appl., 2019, 11, 064020 [10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064020][arXiv:1807.01219]. In this 32 page manuscript we show that the usual equations used to describe electrical scanned probe microscopy experiments make assumptions which are not valid for a wide variety of semiconductor samples. We derive new equations for cantilever frequency shift and non-contact electrical friction, written in terms of the sample’s electrical impedance, that are valid for semiconductor samples.

[Dwyer2019mar] Dwyer, R. P. & Marohn, J. A.“Electric force microscopy of sample having appreciable sample impedance”, NanoScientific, 2019, 16, 6 – 9 [url][pdf]. This short conference paper summarizes our revised view of electrical scanned probe microscopy experiments.

[Tirmzi2019jan] Tirmzi, A. M.; Christians, J. A.; Dwyer, R. P.; Moore, D. T. & Marohn, J. A.“Substrate-dependent photoconductivity dynamics in a high-efficiency hybrid perovskite alloy”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2019, 123, 3402 - 3415 [10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b11783].

[Nguyen2018feb] Nguyen, H. L. & Marohn, J. A.“Reverse Monte Carlo Reconstruction of Electron Spin-label Coordinates from Scanned-probe Magnetic Resonance Microscope Signals”, submitted 20 February 2018 [arXiv:1802.07247].

[Isaac2018jan] Isaac, C. E.; Curley, E. A.; Nasr, P. T.; Nguyen, H. L. & Marohn, J. A.“Cryogenic Positioning and Alignment With Micrometer Precision in a Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope”, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 2018, 89(1), 013707 [10.1063/1.5008505][arXiv:1710.01442].

[Dwyer2017oct] Dwyer, R. P.; Smieska, L. M.; Tirmzi, A. M. & Marohn, J. A.“Vector Electric Field Measurement via Position-modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2017, 111(17), 173106 [10.1063/1.4999172][arXiv:1710.06927].

[Dwyer2017jun] Dwyer, R. P.; Nathan, S. R. & Marohn, J. A.“Microsecond photocapacitance transients observed using a charged microcantilever as a gated mechanical integrator”, Sci. Adv., 2017, 3, e1602951 [10.1126/sciadv.1602951]. See the associated press release at the Cornell Chronicle [link] and at phys.org [link].

[Tirmzi2017jan] Tirmzi, A. M.; Dwyer, R. P.; Hanrath, T. & Marohn, J. A.“Coupled Slow and Fast Charge Dynamics in Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskite”, ACS Energy Lett., 2017, 2, 488 - 496 [10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00722].

[Isaac2016apr] Isaac, C. E.; Gleave, C. M.; Nasr, P. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Curley, E. A.; Yoder, J. L.; Moore, E. W.; Chen, L. & Marohn, J. A.“Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in a Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope Experiment”, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 8806 - 8819 [10.1039/C6CP00084C][arXiv:1601.07253].

[Smieska2016feb] Smieska, L. M.; Li, Z.; Ley, D.; Braunschweig, A. B. & Marohn, J. A.“Trap-clearing Spectroscopy in Perylene Diimide Derivatives”, Chem. Mater., 2016, 28, 813 - 820 [10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b04025].

[ODea2015jul] O’Dea, J. R.; Holtz, M. E.; Legard, A. E.; Young, S. D.; Burns, R. G.; Van Wassen, A. R.; Muller, D. A.; Abruna, H. D.; DiSalvo, F. J.; van Dover, R. B. & Marohn, J. A.“Conductivity and Microstructure of Combinatorially Sputter-Deposited Nitride Thin Films”, Chem. of Mater., 2015, 27, 4515 - 4524 [10.1021/cm504599s].

[Lekkala2013nov] Lekkala, S.; Marohn, J. A. & Loring, R. F.“Electric force microscopy of semiconductors: Cantilever frequency fluctuations and noncontact friction”, J. Chem. Phys., 2013, 139, 184702 [10.1063/1.4828862].

[Chen2013apr] Chen, L.; Longenecker, J. G.; Moore, E. W. & Marohn, J. A.“Long-Lived Frequency Shifts Observed in a Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope Experiment Following Microwave Irradiation of a Nitroxide Spin Probe”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2013, 102, 132404 [10.1063/1.4795018][PMCID:PMC3631243].

[Chen2013jul] Chen, L.; Longenecker, J. G.; Moore, E. W. & Marohn, J. A.“Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy Detected Long-Lived Spin Magnetization”, IEEE Trans. Magn., 2013, 49, 3528 - 3532 [10.1109/TMAG.2013.2239268][PMCID:PMC4474500].

[Smieska2012dec] Smieska, L. M.; Pozdin, V. A.; Luria, J. L.; Hennig, R. G.; Hines, M. A.; Lewis, C. A. & Marohn, J. A.“Following Chemical Charge Trapping in Pentacene Thin Films by Selective Impurity Doping and Wavelength-resolved Electric Force Microscopy”, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2012, 22, 5096 - 5106 [10.1002/adfm.201200595].

[Longenecker2012nov] Longenecker, J. G.; Mamin, H. J.; Senko, A. W.; Chen, L.; Rettner, C. T.; Rugar, D. & Marohn, J. A.“High-Gradient Nanomagnets on Cantilevers for Sensitive Detection of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance”, ACS Nano, 2012, 6, 9637 - 9645 [10.1021/nn3030628][PMCID:PMC3535834].

[Luria2012nov] Luria, J. L.; Hoepker, N.; Bruce, R.; Jacobs, A. R.; Groves, C. & Marohn, J. A.“Spectroscopic Imaging of Photopotentials and Photoinduced Potential Fluctuations in a Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell Film”, ACS Nano, 2012, 6, 9392 - 9401 [10.1021/nn300941f].

[Lekkala2012sep] Lekkala, S.; Hoepker, N.; Marohn, J. A. & Loring, R. F.“Charge carrier dynamics and interactions in electric force microscopy”, J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 137, 124701 [10.1063/1.4754602].

[Alexson2012jul] Alexson, D. A.; Hickman, S. A.; Marohn, J. A. & Smith, D. D.“Single-shot nuclear magnetization recovery curves with force-gradient detection”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2012, 101, 022103 [10.1063/1.4730610][PMCID:PMC4482470].

[O’Dea2012jul] O’Dea, J. R.; Brown, L. M.; Hoepker, N.; Marohn, J. A. & Sadewasser, S. “Scanned Probe Microscopy of Solar Cells: From Inorganic Thin Films to Organic Photovoltaics”, Mater. Res. Soc. Bulletin, 2012, 37, 642 - 650 [10.1557/mrs.2012.143].

[Lee2012apr] Lee, S.-G.; Moore, E. W.; Hickman, S. A.; Longenecker, J. G. & Marohn, J. A.“Switching Through Intermediate States Seen in a Single Nickel Nanowire by Cantilever Magnetometry”, J. Appl. Phys., 2012, 111, 083911 [10.1063/1.3699363][PMCID:PMC3344871].

[Lee2012apra] Lee, S.-G.; Moore, E. W. & Marohn, J. A.“A Unified Picture of Cantilever Frequency-Shift Measurements of Magnetic Resonance”, Phys. Rev. B, 2012, 85, 165447 [10.1103/PhysRevB.85.165447][PMCID:PMC3918878].

[Choi2011jul] Choi, J. J.; Wenger, W.; Hoffman, R.; Lim, Y.-F.; Luria, J.; Jasieniak, J.; Marohn, J. A. & Hanrath, T. “Solution Processed Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells”, Adv. Mater., 2011, 23, 3144 - 3148 [10.1002/adma.201100723].

[Hoepker2011oct] Hoepker, N.; Lekkala, S.; Loring, R. F. & Marohn, J. A.“Dielectric Fluctuations Over Polymer Films Detected Using an Atomic Force Microscope”, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2011, 115, 14493 - 14500 [10.1021/jp207387d].

[Longenecker2011may] Longenecker, J. G.; Moore, E. W. & Marohn, J. A.“Rapid serial prototyping of magnet-tipped attonewton-sensitivity cantilevers by focused ion beam manipulation”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 2011, 29, 032001 [10.1116/1.3581102][PMCID:PMC3427987].

[Luria2011feb] Luria, J. L.; Schwarz, K. A.; Jaquith, M. J.; Hennig, R. G. & Marohn, J. A.“Spectroscopic Characterization of Charged Defects in Polycrystalline Pentacene by Time- and Wavelength-Resolved Electric Force Microscopy”, Adv. Mater., 2011, 23, 624 - 628 [10.1002/adma.201003073].

[Choi2010apr] Choi, J. J.; Luria, J.; Hyun, B.-R.; Bartnik, A. C.; Sun, L.; Lim, Y.-F.; Marohn, J. A.; Wise, F. W. & Hanrath, T. “Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies”, Nano Lett., 2010, 10, 1805 - 1811 [10.1021/nl100498e].

[Hickman2010nov] Hickman, S. A.; Moore, E. W.; Lee, S.-G.; Longenecker, J. G.; Wright, S. J.; Harrell, L. E. & Marohn, J. A.“Batch-fabrication of cantilevered magnets on attonewton-sensitivity mechanical oscillators for scanned-probe nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging”, ACS Nano, 2010, 4, 7141 - 7150 [10.1021/nn101577t][PMCID:PMC4472333].

[Moore2010jul] Moore, E. W.; Lee, S.-G.; Hickman, S. A.; Harrell, L. E. & Marohn, J. A.“Evading Surface and Detector Frequency Noise in Harmonic Oscillator Measurements of Force Gradients”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2010, 97, 044105 [10.1063/1.3465906][PMCID:PMC2924902].

[Jaquith2009sep] Jaquith, M. J.; Anthony, J. E. & Marohn, J. A.“Long-lived charge traps in functionalized pentacene and anthradithiophene studied by time-resolved electric force microscopy”, J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 6116 - 6123 [10.1039/b902880c].

[Moore2009dec] Moore, E. W.; Lee, S.-G.; Hickman, S. A.; Wright, S. J.; Harrell, L. E.; Borbat, P. P.; Freed, J. H. & Marohn, J. A.“Scanned-Probe Detection of Electron Spin Resonance from a Nitroxide Spin Probe”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2009, 106, 22251 - 22256 [10.1073/pnas.0908120106][PMCID:PMC2799694].

[Yazdanian2009jun] Yazdanian, S. M.; Hoepker, N.; Kuehn, S.; Loring, R. F. & Marohn, J. A.“Quantifying Electric Field Gradient Fluctuations over Polymers Using Ultrasensitive Cantilevers”, Nano Lett., 2009, 9, 2273 - 2279 [10.1021/nl9004332][PMCID:PMC2838734].

[deRoover2008apr] de Roover, D.; Porter II, L. M.; Emami-Naeni, A.; Marohn, J. A.; Kuehn, S.; Garner, S. & Smith, D. D.“An All-Digital Cantilever Controller for MRFM and Scanned Probe Microscopy using a Combined DSP/FPGA Design”, Amer. Laboratory, 2008, 40, 12.

[Kuehn2008feb] Kuehn, S.; Hickman, S. A. & Marohn, J. A.“Advances in Mechanical Detection of Magnetic Resonance”, J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 128, 052208 [10.1063/1.2834737][PMCID:PMC2494537].

[Malliaras2008mar] Malliaras, G. G.; Slinker, J. D.; DeFranco, J. A.; Jaquith, M. J.; Silveira, W. R.; Zhong, Y.-W.; Moran-Mirabal, J. M.; Craighead, H. G.; Abruna, H. D. & Marohn, J. A.“Operating mechanism of light-emitting electrochemical cells — Authors’ response”, Nat. Mater., 2008, 7, 168 [10.1038/nmat2129].

[Yazdanian2008jun] Yazdanian, S. M.; Marohn, J. A. & Loring, R. F.“Dielectric Fluctuations in Force Microscopy: Noncontact Friction and Frequency Jitter”, J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 128, 224706 [10.1063/1.2932254][PMCID:PMC2674627].

[deRoover2007feb] de Roover, D.; Porter II, L. M.; Emami-Naeni, A.; Marohn, J. A.; Kuehn, S.; Garner, S. & Smith, D. D.“-0.05in, An All-Digital Cantilever Controller for MRFM and Scanned Probe Microscopy using a Combined DSP/FPGA Design”, Proceedings of the 10th NSTI Nanotech Conference, Santa Clara, CA, U.S.A., 2007.

[Jaquith2007jul] Jaquith, M.; Muller, E. M. & Marohn, J. A.“Time-resolved electric force microscopy of charge trapping in polycrystalline pentacene”, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2007, 111, 7711 - 7714 [10.1021/jp073626l].

[Ng2007feb] Ng, T. N.; Silveira, W. R. & Marohn, J. A.“Dependence of charge injection on temperature, electric field, and energetic disorder in an organic semiconductor”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2007, 98, 066101 [10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.066101].

[Silveira2007] Silveira, W. R.; Muller, E. M.; Ng, T. N.; Dunlap, D. H. & Marohn, J. A. Kalinin, S. V. & Gruverman, A. (Eds.) “High-Sensitivity Electric Force Microscopy of Organic Electronic Devices and Materials”, Scanning Probe Microscopy: Electrical and Electromechanical Phenomena at the Nanoscale, 2007, II, 788 - 830.

[Slinker2007nov] Slinker, J. D.; DeFranco, J. A.; Jaquith, M. J.; Silveira, W. R.; Zhong, Y.-W.; Moran-Mirabal, J. M.; Craighead, H. G.; Abruna, H. D.; Marohn, J. A. & Malliaras, G. G.“Direct measurement of the electric-field distribution in a light-emitting electrochemical cell”, Nat. Mater., 2007, 6, 894 - 899 [10.1038/nmat2021].

[Kuehn2006aug] Kuehn, S.; Marohn, J. A. & Loring, R. F.“Noncontact dielectric friction”, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2006, 110, 14525 - 145258 [10.1021/jp061865n][PMCID:PMC2323026)].

[Kuehn2006apr] Kuehn, S.; Loring, R. F. & Marohn, J. A.“Dielectric Fluctuations and the Origins of Noncontact Friction”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2006, 96, 156103 [PhysRevLett.96.156103][PMCID:PMC1941717].

[Ng2006mar] Ng, T. N.; Jenkins, N. E. & Marohn, J. A.“Thermomagnetic Fluctuations and Hysteresis Loops of Magnetic Cantilevers for Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy”, IEEE Trans. Mag., 2006, 42, 378 - 381 [10.1109/TMAG.2006.870259].

[Ng2006oct] Ng, T. N.; Marohn, J. A. & Chabinyc, M. L.“Comparing the kinetics of bias stress in organic field-effect transistors with different dielectric interfaces”, J. Appl. Phys., 2006, 100, 84505 [10.1063/1.2358410].

[Ng2006aug] Ng, T. N.; Silveira, W. R. & Marohn, J. A.“Non-Ideal Behavior in a Model System: Contact Degradation in a Molecularly Doped Polymer Revealed by Variable-Temperature Electric Force Microscopy”, Proc. SPIE, 2006, 6336, 63360A [10.1117/12.681010].

[Muller2005jun] Muller, E. M. & Marohn, J. A.“Microscopic evidence for spatially inhomogeneous charge trapping in pentacene”, Adv. Mater., 2005, 17, 1410 [10.1002/adma.200401174].

[Garner2004jun] Garner, S. R.; Kuehn, S.; Dawlaty, J. M.; Jenkins, N. E. & Marohn, J. A.“Force-Gradient Detected Nuclear Magnetic Resonance”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2004, 84, 5091 - 5093 [10.1063/1.1762700].

[Jenkins2004may] Jenkins, N. E.; DeFlores, L. P.; Allen, J.; Ng, T. N.; Garner, S. R.; Kuehn, S.; Dawlaty, J. M. & Marohn, J. A.“Batch Fabrication and Characterization of Ultrasensitive Cantilevers with Submicron Magnetic Tips”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 2004, 22, 909 - 915 [10.1116/1.1695336].

[McNeil2004may] McNeil, A. J.; Toombes, G. E. S.; Chandramouli, S. V.; Vanasse, B. J.; Ayers, T. A.; O’Brien, M. K.; Lobkovsky, E.; Gruner, S. M.; Marohn, J. A. & Collum, D. B.“Characterization of $\beta$-Amino Ester Enolates as Hexamers via $^6$Li NMR Spectroscopy”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 5938 - 5939 [10.1021/ja049245s].

[Silveira2004sep] Silveira, W. R. & Marohn, J. A.“Microscopic view of charge injection in an organic semiconductor”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2004, 93, 116104 [10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.116104].

[Kempf2003feb] Kempf, J. G. & Marohn, J. A.“Nanoscale Fourier-transform imaging with magnetic resonance force microscopy”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2003, 90, 087601 [10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.087601].

[Silveira2003jan] Silveira, W. R. & Marohn, J. A.“A vertical inertial coarse approach for variable temperature scanned probe microscopy”, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 2003, 74, 267 - 269 [10.1063/1.1524712].

Manuscripts submitted

Dwyer, R. P.; Smieska, L. M. & Marohn, J. A. “Signal and noise in position-modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements of the vector electric field”, submitted 22 May 2018.

Patents pending

Marohn, J.A.; Nathan, S. & Dwyer, R. “Atomic Force Microscopy Apparatus, Methods, and Applications”. United States Patent Application, Publication No. US-2020-0204112-A1, published 25 June 2020 [Google Patents]..

Marohn, J.A.; Nathan, S. & Dwyer, R. “Atomic Force Microscopy Apparatus, Methods, and Applications”. International Patent Cooperation Treaty Patent Application, Application PCT/US2018/032081, published 15 November 2018 [Google Patents].

PhD theses

[Tirmzi2020jan] Tirmzi, A. M.“Photoconductivity Dynamics in Lead Halide Perovskites Probed by Scanning Probe Microscopy”, Cornell University, 2020 (172 pages, 46.5 MB).

[Nguyen2018may] Nguyen, H. L.“Image Reconstruction Development and Signal-to-Noise Analysis for Nanometer-Scale Magnetic Resonance Imaging”, Cornell University, 2018 (308 pages, 44 MB).

[Isaac2018feb] Isaac, C. E.“Harnessing Electron Spin Labels for Single Molecule Magnetic Resonance Imaging”, Cornell University, 2018 (331 pages, 144 MB).

[Dwyer2017aug] Dwyer, R. P.“Probing Charge Motion in Next Generation Semiconductors with Scanned Probe Microscopy”, Cornell University, 2017 (247 pages, 10.3 MB).

[Smieska2015aug] Smieska, L. M.“Microscopic Studies of the Fate of Charges in Organic Semiconductors: Scanning Kelvin Probe Measurements of Charge Trapping, Transport, and Electric Fields in p- and n-type Devices”, Cornell University, 2015 [Cornell eCommons][Proquest thesis no. 3730470][pdf] (230 pages, 36.4 MB).

[Longenecker2013jan] Longenecker, J. G.“High-Gradient Nanomagnet-on-Cantilever Fabrication for Scanned Probe Detection of Magnetic Resonance”, Cornell University, 2013 [Cornell eCommons][Proquest thesis no. 3536799][pdf chapters 1 and 2][pdf chapter 3][pdf chapter 4][pdf chapter 5][pdf chapter 6] (228 pages, 136.7 MB total).

[Hoepker2013jan] Hoepker, N. C.“Fluctuations Near Thin Films of Polymers, Organic Photovoltaics, and Organic Semiconductors Probed by Electric Force Microscopy”, Cornell University, 2013 [Cornell eCommons][pdf] (219 pages, 10.3 MB).

[Moore2011sep] Moore, E. W.“1. Mechanical Detection of Electron Spin Resonance from Nitroxide Spin Probes, 2. Ultrasensitive Cantilever Torque Magnetometry of Magnetization Switching in Individual Nickel Nanorods”, Cornell University, 2011 [Cornell eCommons][pdf] (155 pages, 7.2 MB).

[Luria2011aug] Luria, J. L.“Spectroscopic Characterization of Charge Generation and Trapping in Third-Generation Solar Cell Materials Using Wavelength- and Time-Resolved Electric Force Microscopy”, Cornell University, 2011 [Cornell eCommons][pdf] (196 pages, 30.0 MB).

[Hickman2010feb] Hickman, S. A.“Batch fabrication of cantilevered magnetic nanorods on attonewton-sensitivity silicon oscillators for magnetic resonance force microscopy”, Cornell University, 2010 [Cornell eCommons][pdf] (156 pages, 38.5 MB).

[Yazdanian2009aug] Yazdanian, S. M.“Scanned Probe Microscopy Studies of Thin Organic Films Using Cantilever Frequency Noise”, Cornell University, 2009 [Cornell eCommons][pdf] (155 pages, 8.5 MB).

[Jaquith2009jan] Jaquith, M. J.“The Kinetics of Charge Trapping in Polycrystalline Pentacene and Ion Migration in Light Emitting Electrochemical Cells Studied by Time- and Temperature-Resolved Electric Force Microscopy”, Cornell University, 2009 [Cornell eCommons][pdf] (156 pages, 10.5 MB).

[Kuehn2007aug] Kuehn, S. “Force-Gradient Detected Magnetic Resonance and the Origins of Noncontact Friction”, Cornell University, 2007 [pdf] (179 pages, 5.2 MB).

[Jenkins2007jan] Jenkins, N. E.“Expanding the Limits of Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy”, Cornell University, 2007 [pdf] (241 pages, 4.4 MB).

[Ng2006may] Ng, T. N.“Developments in Force Detection: Integrated Cantilever Magnetometry and Electric Force Microscopy of Organic Semiconductors”, Cornell University, 2006 [pdf] (130 pages, 7.8 MB).

[Muller2005aug] Muller, E. M.“Electric Force Microscopy of Charge Trapping in Thin-Film Pentacene”, Cornell University, 2005 [pdf] (141 pages, 2.9 MB).

[Garner2005aug] Garner, S. R.“Force-Gradient Detection of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance”, Cornell University, 2005 [pdf] (150 pages, 2.9 MB).

[Silveira2005aug] Silveira, W. R.“Microscopic View of Charge Injection in a Model Organic Semiconductor”, Cornell University, 2005 [pdf] (305 pages, 7.4 MB).